Download 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and PDF

By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

The 2009 ASHRAE instruction manual - basics covers easy ideas and knowledge utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up-to-date with study subsidized via ASHRAE and others, this quantity contains 39 chapters protecting common engineering details, easy fabrics, weather facts, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and logos, in addition to actual homes of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were extra to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on the planet.

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Extra resources for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)

Sample text

14 Diagram for Example 2 § fL z1 – z2 = 32 ft = ¨ 1 + ----- + D © 2 · 8Q 6 K¸¹ --------------S gD 2 4 Because f depends on Q (unless flow is fully turbulent), iteration is required. The usual procedure is as follows: Fig. 14 Diagram for Example 2 errors can occur if the relative roughness does not correspond to that used when fref was fixed. It is unlikely that fitting losses involving separation are affected by pipe roughness. The effective length method for fitting loss evaluation is still useful.

The loss does not vary linearly with the turning angle because secondary motion occurs. Note that using K presumes its independence of the Reynolds number. Some investigators have documented a variation in the loss coefficient with the Reynolds number. Assuming that K varies with Re similarly to f, it is convenient to represent fitting losses as adding to the effective length of uniform conduit. The effective length of a fitting is then Leff /D = K/fref (36) where fref is an appropriate reference value of the friction factor.

Flow rate in a conduit is measured by placing a pitot device at various locations in the cross section and spatially integrating over the velocity found. A single-point measurement may be used for approximate flow rate evaluation. When flow is fully developed, the pipe-factor information of Figure 5 can be used to estimate the flow rate from a centerline measurement. Measurements can be made in one of two modes. With the pitotstatic tube, the ambient (static) pressure is found from pressure taps along the side of the forward-facing portion of the tube.

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