The 2014 ASHRAE Handbook€”Refrigeration covers the refrigeration apparatus and platforms for purposes except human convenience. This quantity comprises facts and suggestions on cooling, freezing, and storing nutrition; business and clinical functions of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration; and incorporates a dual-unit CD.
CD method specifications: home windows: CD-ROM force; 1.3 GHz or quicker processor; Microsoft home windows Vista, home windows 7, or home windows eight (62-bit and 64-big); 1 GB of RAM (2 GB recommended); Microsoft web Explorer eight or better; Adobe Acrobat/Reader 10.0 or larger; 350 MB hard-disk house. Macintosh: Mac OS X v. 10.5.8 or v. 10.6.4; 512 MB of RAM (1 GB recommended); 415 MB hard-disk area; 800 x six hundred reveal answer (1024 x 768 recommended); Safari four for Mac OS X v. 10.5.8, Safari four or 5.0x for Mac OS X v. 10.6.4, Safari 6.0 for Mac OS X v. 10.7.4 or v. 10.8; Firefox; Adobe Acrobat/Reader 10.0 or larger. quotation: 2014 ASHRAE Handbook
ASHRAE, based in 1894, is a world association of a few 50,000 individuals. ASHRAE fulfills its challenge of advancing heating, air flow, air-con, and refrigeration to serve humanity and advertise a sustainable global via learn, criteria writing, publishing, and carrying on with schooling.
The ASHRAE Handbooks are the layout general for regulate of outfitted environments with volumes on platforms and kit, HVAC purposes, Refrigeration and basics. each one is up-to-date each 4 years. as well as publishing layout tips for engineers, architects, and facility managers, we additionally post a sequence of texts for lecture room use.
a number of the parts we post in include:
-Energy Modeling and Auditing
-High functionality development Design
-Indoor Air caliber and Environmental Quality
-Data middle power Efficiency
-Noise & Vibration Control
-HVAC for Healthcare amenities
Read or Download 2014 ASHRAE Handbook -- Refrigeration (I-P) (Ashrae Handbook Refrigeration Systems/Applications Inch-Pound System PDF
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Additional info for 2014 ASHRAE Handbook -- Refrigeration (I-P) (Ashrae Handbook Refrigeration Systems/Applications Inch-Pound System
Air-Cooled Condensers Refrigerant pressure drop through air-cooled condensers must be obtained from the supplier for the particular unit at the specified load. If refrigerant pressure drop is low enough and the arrangement is practical, parallel condensers can be connected to allow for capacity reduction to zero on one condenser without causing liquid back-up in active condensers (Figure 26). Multiple condensers with high pressure drops can be connected as shown in Figure 26, provided that (1) the ambient at the receiver is equal to or lower than the inlet air temperature to the condenser; (2) capacity control affects all units equally; (3) all units operate when one operates, unless valved off at both inlet and outlet; and (4) all units are of equal size.
Although well-designed piping systems can handle the oil in most cases, a discharge-line oil separator can have certain advantages in some applications (see Chapter 11), such as • In systems where it is impossible to prevent substantial absorption of refrigerant in the crankcase oil during shutdown periods. When the compressor starts up with a violent foaming action, oil is thrown out at an accelerated rate, and the separator immediately returns a large portion of this oil to the crankcase. Normally, the system should be designed with pumpdown control or crankcase heaters to minimize liquid absorption in the crankcase.
In some installations with multiple compressors and with capacity control, a vertical hot-gas line, sized to transport oil at minimum load, has excessive pressure drop at maximum load. When this problem exists, either a double riser or a single riser with an oil separator can be used. Double Hot-Gas Risers. A double hot-gas riser can be used the same way it is used in a suction line. Figure 18 shows the double riser principle applied to a hot-gas line. Its operating principle and sizing technique are described in the section on Double Suction Risers.