By R. Franceys
Offers certain functional and technical suggestion meant to lead the choice, layout, building, and upkeep of on-site amenities for the removing of human excreta. Addressed to engineers, sanitarians, clinical officials, and venture planners, the booklet concentrates on technical strategies compatible for owners development their very own latrines, even if in small groups, rural parts, or disadvantaged city settlements. information variety from line drawings illustrating positive aspects of layout and development, via a listing of the explanation why better sanitation may perhaps elicit detrimental responses from clients, to directions for calculating the inner dimensions of a septic tank.
The booklet beneficial properties 11 chapters in 3 components. Chapters within the first half introduce the rules of sanitary perform, describe the hyperlinks among excreta and sickness, and clarify the various social and cultural elements that needs to be thought of on the making plans part. Chapters within the moment and so much broad half supply a close technical advisor to the layout, building, operation and upkeep of the entire major strategies for on-site sanitation. Chapters describe how the differing kinds of latrine paintings, talk about their relative advantages, and set out exact plans for the development of latrines and their parts. the ultimate half positive factors 3 chapters at the making plans and improvement of on-site sanitation tasks, underscoring the necessity for an intensive research of cultural in addition to layout positive aspects.
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Extra resources for A Guide to the Development of On-Site Sanitation
The defecation hole may be provided with a cover or plug to prevent the entrance of flies or egress of odour while the pit is not being used. The cover slab is commonly surrounded by some form of superstructure that provides shelter and privacy for the user. The superstructure design is irrelevant to the operation of the latrine but crucial to the acceptability of the latrine to the user. Superstructures range from a simple shelter of sacks or sticks to a building of bricks or blocks costing more than the rest of the latrine.
16. Some layout options for double-pit offset pour-flush latrines Raised pit latrines Another way of dealing with the problem of difficult ground conditions close to the surface is to construct raised pit latrines. The pit is excavated as deep as possible, working at the end of the dry season in areas of high groundwater. The lining is extended above ground level until the desired pit volume is achieved. 5 m. In such cases, the lining above ground should be sealed by plastering both sides (Fig.
In rural areas, where land availability is not a constraint, it is often advisable to dig another pit for a new latrine. The original pit may then be left for several years and when the second is filled it may be simplest to re-dig the first pit rather than to excavate a new hole in hard ground. The sludge will not cause any health problems and is beneficial as a fertilizer. However, in urban areas, where it is not possible to excavate further holes and where the investment in pit-lining and superstructure has been substantial, the pit must be emptied.