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By Dietz P.H.

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Sample text

It depends upon the circuit being linear. If you have a nonlinear element in your circuit, like an LED, this just plain doesn’t work. ) Another limitation is dependent sources. We will discuss how to deal with those in the next chapter. For the moment though, you may revel in the elegance of this technique. What is a Digital to Analog Convertor? A digital to analog convertor is a device which takes digital inputs, and outputs a number of different voltage levels. For example, in your compact disk player, the 16-bit digital to analog convertor, or DAC, takes the binary data from the disk, and puts out a rapid sequence of voltages chosen from a list of 65536 different levels.

In order to use your Stamp to create different voltages (your problem for the week), you will be combining several output pins into a single circuit. You could solve these circuits using the techniques we have already discussed. However, because you will be using independent sources with a linear network, there is another useful trick to learn that will make the analysis much easier. Consider the circuit shown below: R1 V1 V R2 R3 V2 Using KCL, we can write the equation at V as: V1 – V V2 – V V ----------------- + ----------------- = ------R3 R1 R2 Solving for V is straightforward, producing: V1 V2 ------- + ------R1 R2 R3 ( V1R2 + V2R1 ) V = ---------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------------------R3R2 + R3R1 + R1R2 1 1 1 ------- + ------- + ------R1 R2 R3 If the problem had more nodes and more sources, the algebra gets unwieldy rather quickly.

We’ll be discussing this more later. Let’s take a closer look at what’s going on here. The voltage on the negative terminal of the op amp is: Rs Rs + R f Rs V - = V out ------------------ ≅ V in ------------------ ------------------ = V in = V + Rs Rs + R f Rs + R f In fact, the positive and negative inputs on the op amp had better be about equal. If this were not the case, the output of the real op amp would be pegged near one of the supply rails. Basically, the feedback is doing all that it can to try and make the voltages on the plus and minus inputs as close to equal as possible.

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