By Richard Folkson
Эта серьёзная книга посвящена альтернативным видам топлива и технологическим решениям в устройстве автомобилей для снижения негативного влияния на окружающую среду.
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5 Regulatory requirements and consumer trends Vehicle manufacturing is one of the most highly regulated industries in the world and is required to meet legislation around the world that controls all aspects of the product and its manufacture. These include emissions, safety, environmental standards and differing tax regimes to influence consumer purchase decisions. Emissions regulations were first introduced in the 1970s to control exhaust pollutants. The regulated gases measured during prescribed tests control NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (carbon monoxide), HC (unburned hydrocarbons) and PM (particulate matter representing carbon particles or soot).
In the absence of significant growth in E85 sales this could not be implemented with new waiver approvals since these levels of ethanol are well beyond the tolerance capability level of current conventional vehicles. New vehicle and engine specifications would be required, together with the maintenance of a protection grade fuel (E10 or E15) for existing vehicles. A discussion of octane targets for these blends is also included. Flexible-fuel (or flex-fuel) vehicles (FFVs) are capable of using ethanol in concentration levels of up to 85% (E85) by volume.
1. The fact that they are liquids means that vehicles can be fully re-fuelled in two or three minutes and the shape of the tanks containing them can be more easily adapted to available vehicle package space with simple vapour recovery systems and without the additional requirements for cooling systems required by electrochemical storage systems. 2 Vehicle cost Key to enabling the widespread availability of sustainable transport is to provide solutions which customers can afford to purchase. Renewable liquid fuels satisfy this criterion by enabling the evolution of vehicles and fuel distribution infrastructures which are broadly compatible with current technologies.