Download Ashrae Handbook - 1997 Fundamentals by Robert Parsons PDF

By Robert Parsons

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1976) found a variation with the Reynolds number similar to that of the friction factor; Kittridge and Rowley (1957) observed it only with laminar flow. Assuming that K varies with Re similarly to f , it is convenient to represent fitting losses as adding to the effective length of uniform conduit. The effective length of a fitting is then L e ff ⁄ D = K ⁄ fref (34) where fref is an appropriate reference value of the friction factor. 02. For rough conduits, appreciable errors can occur if the relative roughness does not correspond to that used when fref was fixed.

If α is large (high conductivity, low density and specific heat, or both), heat will diffuse faster. One of the most elementary transient heat transfer models predicts the rate of temperature change of a body or material being held at constant volume with uniform temperature, such as a well-stirred reservoir of fluid whose temperature is changing because of a net rate of heat gain or loss: dt q net = ( Mc v ) ----dτ (29) where M is the mass of the body, and cv is its specific heat at constant volume.

For further information on heat transfer, see the section on Bibliography. HEAT TRANSFER PROCESSES Thermal Conduction. This is the mechanism of heat transfer whereby energy is transported between parts of a continuum by the transfer of kinetic energy between particles or groups of particles at the atomic level. In gases, conduction is caused by elastic collision of molecules; in liquids and electrically nonconducting solids, it is believed to be caused by longitudinal oscillations of the lattice structure.

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