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By Sammy C. Letema

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D. End-user participation: participatory versus technocratic The assessment scales for the participatory-technocratic dimension are: 1. end-user participation in initiation, financing, construction and operation and maintenance; 2. end-user participation in initiation, financing and operation and maintenance, with construction by artisans; 3. end-user participation in resource mobilisation and selection of utility operators; 4. end-user participation in operation and maintenance; 5. end-user participation through awareness, sensitisation and satisfaction surveys; 6.

Such rebalancing calls firstly, for assessing sanitary dimensions in order to know which system can merge with which service provider, at what scale and spatial structure, and under which management and participation arrangement. Sanitary configurations can be better understood when mapped and schematically presented. Mapping is done by way of shading where scales from empirical analysis are transferred to axes within concentric lines that represent an assessment scale along MM dimension. Secondly, the sanitary systems should be subjected to sustainability assessment in order to determine which sanitary systems are sustainable, which are not sustainable and which elements need what kind of intervention measures.

In Kisumu, pumping stations and electromechanical equipment were reported to be grounded for over a decade (JICA, 1998; LVSWSB, 2005a), with rehabilitation programmes for the same undertaken from 2008 (LVSWB, 2008). The standby generators in Kampala’s Bugolobi east and low-level pumping station have insufficient power to operate the pumps during power cuts. Pumping stations generally take a long time to be restored because spare parts purchases, which are often imported, take up to a year. g. Kisumu electricty bills are often more than Kwh 7,500.

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