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Additional info for Assessment Strategies for Cognitive–Behavioral Interventions
People may rely on their memories for situational information about consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency rather than acquiring new information to assign causes to events. , Jones & Nisbett, 1971). Thus, the classical social 28 Gerald I. Metalsky and Lyn Y. Abramson psychological approach to attributional inferences is not incompatible with cognitive work emphasizing that, in part, people's inferences about present events are guided by old information. In contrast to situational information, generalized beliefs or schémas relevant to resolving causal ambiguity often represent generalized hypotheses or personal theories about the self, other people, and the world.
For example, the person in our last example should make three different attributions if he or she utilizes the generalized beliefs "I am competent in school," "my lover is fickle," and "promotions are based on seniority ' ' to resolve causal ambiguity for the three respective outcomes. In this case, he or she might attribute the classroom success, the lover's praise, and the job promotion to his or her skill in school, his or her lover's good mood, and his or her twenty-year employment, respectively.
Unlike depressives' causal inferences, however, normal people's causal inferences are often ego-enhancing. Perhaps normal people have strong generalized beliefs about their own competence that make these attributions plausible. As the discussion of differences in causal attributions between depressed and nondepressed people implied, Cell 2 is a condition in which strong individual differences will exist in causal inferences. Different people will make different attributions for the same outcome in the same situation.