By Giulio Aniello Santoro M.D., Ph.D., Giuseppe Di Falco M.D. (auth.)
Read Online or Download Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer PDF
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Additional info for Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer
Normal anorectal and pelvic anatomy (a-c) 30 Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography Fig. IlIA. The puborectalis muscle swings around the anal canal at its most proximal limit to encircle the sphincter posteriorly A thin hypo echoic layer representing the mucosa may sometimes be seen. The hypoechoic layer that represents the internal anal sphincter can be traced superiorly into the circular muscle of the rectum. 5 mm) and increases with age owing to the presence of more fibrous tissue as the absolute amount of muscle decreases .
Saclarides TJ. Endorectal ultrasound. Surg Clin North Am 1998;78:237-49 9. Hussain SM, Stoker J, Schutte HE, Lameris JS. Imaging of the anorectal region. Europ J RadioI1996;22:n6-22 10. Giovannini M. Three-dimensional endorectal ultrasound: gadget or technology of the future? Acta Endoscopica 2000;30:19-25 n. Hunerbein M, Schlag PM. 3D-endosonography for staging of rectal cancer. B. Kruskal The authors have provided a thorough overview of current techniques employed for imaging the anus and rectum using an endoluminal ultrasound approach.
C.. \' 1 layer. hypoechoic ~ \'i? '. (perrrectal fat t .. ,". , t. \-. 11 . ,/ Fig. 21. Normal ultrasound anatomy of the rectal wall in 3D (Fig. 19) and the uterus, cervix and vagina in the female (Fig. 20) . 3D rectal ultrasound offers a valuable supplement to conventional ultrasound . The 5 layers of the rectal wall are clearly illustrated in the coronal plane as well as in the transaxial and the longitudinal image planes (Fig. 21). References canal and rectum. World J Surg 2000; 24:208-15 4.